Zingiberaceae

Các loài thực vật mới cho khoa học phát hiện ở Việt Nam 2014

Nycticebus pygmaeus

Buôn bán động vật hoang dã ở Việt Nam.

Ex-situ conservation of Xanthocyparis vietnamensis

Bảo tồn chuyển vị loài Bách vàng ở Hà Giang. Photo by Pham Van The.

Hoya longipedunculata

Cẩm cù cuống dài, loài mới 2012 ở Quảng Nam, Việt Nam. Photo by Pham Van The.

Forest fired

Cháy rừng Khộp, nguyên nhân suy thoái Đa dạng sinh học.

Taxus wallichiana var. chinensis

Thông đỏ bắc, loài trong Sách đỏ Việt Nam, phân bố miền Bắc. Photo by Pham Van The.

Ovophis monticola

Rắn lục núi, loài bị đe đoạ cấp R, phân bố Tây Bắc - Việt Nam.

Paphiopedilum canhii

Lan hài cảnh, loài đứng bên bờ vực tuyệt chủng, phân bố Việt Nam, Lào

Showing posts with label Tuyen Quang. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Tuyen Quang. Show all posts
26/05/2015

Sáu loài Thu hải đường (Begoniaceae) mới cho khoa học từ vùng núi đá vôi Bắc Việt Nam

Các nhà thực vật Việt Nam và Đài Loan vừa hợp tác công bố 6 loài Thu hải đường  mới cho khoa học được phát hiện từ vùng núi đá vôi phía Bắc Việt Nam ở các tỉnh Cao Bằng, Tuyên Quang, Lạng Sơn và Thanh Hoá. Chúng bao gồm Begonia caobangensis [sect. Platycentrum], B. circularis, B. melanobullata, B. langsonensis, B. locii and B. montaniformis [sect. Coelocentrum]
31/08/2014

Báo cáo đa dạng sinh học: Ba Bể - Na Hang

Báo cáo đa dạng sinh học tổ hợp bảo tồn Ba Bể-Na Hang: bao gồm Vườn Quốc gia Ba Bể, Khu Bảo tồn Thiên nhiên Na Hang và Khu Bảo tồn Loài và Sinh cảnh Nam Xuân Lạc
Ba Be / Na Hang Conservation Complex 
The Ba Be / Na Hang Conservation Complex is a region of north-eastern Viet Nam based around Ba Be National Park and Na Hang Nature Reserve. The region is characterised by steep limestone hills, interspersed with non-limestone areas of more undulating topography. It supports a mosaic of land-use types, including fragmented primary forest patches, patches of secondary vegetation, and areas of permanent and shifting cultivation. The region supports high levels of botanical and faunal diversity including populations of two endemic primates: Tonkin Snub-nosed Monkey Pygathrix avunculus and Francois’ Langur Semnopithecus francoisi francoisi.
25/08/2014

Giá trị bảo tồn thực vật tại khu Dự trữ thiên nhiên Na Hang

Sơ đồ khu vực thu mẫu. Ảnh Phạm Văn Thế
ĐÁNH GIÁ THÊM GIÁ TRỊ BẢO TỒN CỦA THỰC VẬT Ở KHU DỰ TRỮ THIÊN NHIÊN (KDTTN) NA HANG VÀ HAI ĐIỂM LÂN CẬN (HUYỆN NA HANG, TỈNH TUYÊN QUANG)
Phan Kế Lộc, Phạm Văn Thế, Averyanov, L.V. & Nguyễn Tiến Hiệp
Mục đích của công trình là chỉ ra các loài thực vật và các quần xã của chúng ở KDTTN Na Hang cần ưu tiên bảo tồn dựa trên thông tin của chúng tôi, và được xếp thứ hạng theo phiên bản mới nhất của Danh lục đỏ của IUCN căn cứ vào hiện trạng ở khu vực nghiên cứu. Kết quả đánh giá hiện trạng bảo tồn của 189 loài được nhận mặt trong 720 số hiệu mẫu vật thu thập được ở KDTTN Na Hang và 2 điểm lân cận trong khoảng 15 năm gần đấy (chiếm chưa tới 20% tổng số loài Thực vật bậc cao có mạch dự kiến có mặt) cho thấy đã ghi nhận được 31 loài (16%) Bị đe dọa tuyệt chủng trong đó có 1 loài Đang bị tuyệt chủng trầm trọng (CR), 12 loài Đang bị tuyệt chủng (EN) và 18 loài Sắp bị tuyệt chủng (VU). Ba loài mới cho khoa học được mô tả ở đây. Ba quần xã thực vật nguyên sinh (Rừng ưu thế Nghiến và đôi khi cả Trai trên sườn núi đá vôi, Rừng Thông đuôi chồn và Rừng thuần loại Thông hai lá đá vôi trên đường đỉnh núi đá vôi) là những đối tượng cần ưu tiên bảo tồn như các hệ sinh thái nguyên vẹn, nơi sống vốn có của các loài Bị đe dọa tuyệt chủng đã biết, chưa biết cùng các yếu tố tại chỗ có những giá trị khác chưa biết hết được.
20/07/2014

Sự phân bố và hình thái tổ loài Ong vò vẽ Polistes

Ong vò vẽ Polistes mandarinus và tổ của chúng ngoài tự nhiên
(BiodiVn)- Các loài Ong vò vẽ Polistes (Polistella) bao gôm cả hình thái tổ đã được các nhà khoa học Việt Nam là Nguyễn Thị Phương Liên (Viện Sinh thái và Tài nguyên Sinh vật) và Nhật Bản là Jun-ichi Kojima thống kê và mô tả tại một số tỉnh vùng Đông Bắc Việt Nam. Công bố này được đăng tải trên tạp chí ZooKeys (số 368, trang 45–63) vào đầu năm 2014.
Dựa trên các đặc điểm địa lý và khí hậu, "Đông Bắc Việt Nam" được sử dụng trong bài này cho khu vực bao gồm các tỉnh: Hà Giang, Cao Bằng, Tuyên Quang, Bắc Kạn, Thái Nguyên, Lạng Sơn, Bắc Giang và Quảng Ninh (Hình 1). Các mẫu kiểm tra trong nghiên cứu này, ngoại trừ các mẫu không đề cập, được gửi vào Viện Sinh thái và Tài nguyên Sinh vật tại Hà Nội; chúng chủ yếu được thu thập bởi chính tác giả trong một chuyến đi nghiên cứu về Cao Bằng, Bắc Kạn, Bắc Giang thực hiện trong năm 2012.
Trong khi các loài động vật Polistella ở Tây Bắc Việt Nam đã ít nhiều được nghiên cứu (Nguyễn và cộng sự năm 2011.), mà ở phía Đông Bắc Việt Nam thì lại ít được biết đến. Nghiên cứu này đã được công nhận bảy loài Polistes (Polistella) bao gồm một loài mới được mô tả ở vùng Đông Bắc Việt Nam. Sự phân bố của chúng từ trước tới nay đã được xem xét. Tổ của ba loài (Polistes delhiensis Das & Gupta, Polistes mandarinus de Saussure và .) cũng được mô tả.
 So với các loài động vật Polistella trong khu vực miền núi phía Bắc (chủ yếu là Tây Bắc) Việt Nam, nơi mà 14 loài Polistella đã được công nhận, thì động vật Polistella ở Đông Bắc Việt Nam lại với chỉ bảy loài. Điều này cho thấy nơi đây nghèo về sự đa dạng các loài của chúng. Mặc dù môi trường, đặc biệt là điều kiện khí hậu, ở phía Đông Bắc Việt Nam dự kiến ​​sẽ có mức độ đa dạng cao hơn và do đó nuôi dưỡng động vật phong phú hơn về số lượng của các loài hơn so với khu vực miền núi phía Bắc Việt Nam. 

ZooKeys 368: 45–63, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.368.6426
Distribution and nests of paper wasps of Polistes (Polistella) in northeastern Vietnam, with description of a new species (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae)
Lien Thi Phuong Nguyen,  Insect Ecology Department, Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Nghia Do, Cau Giay, Hanoi, Vietnam (phuonglientit@gmail.com); Jun-ichi Kojima, Natural History Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Ibaraki University, Mito, 310−8512 Japan.
Received 12 October 2013 | Accepted 16 December 2013 | Published 8 January 2014

Abstract. Seven species of the subgenus Polistella Ashmead of the genus Polistes Latreille including described here, are recognized to occur in northeastern Vietnam, the easternmost part of the eastern slope of the Himalayas. A key to these species is provided. Their distributional records are remarked. Nests of P. delhiensis Das & Gupta, P. mandarinus de Saussure and are also described.

Keywords. Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae, Polistes, Polistella, new species, nest, northeastern Vietnam
Introduction

Of the four subgenera in the cosmopolitan paper wasp genus Polistes, Polistella, with some 85 extant species, is the largest in terms of the number of species among the three subgenera endemic to Old World (Gyrostoma Kirby & Spence, Polistella Ashmead, and Polistes Latreille). The subgenus Polistella is known to show a high species diversity in the northern part of Indochina, the area on the eastern slope of the Himalayas. This is especially the case, together with strong endemism, for the Polistella species that are characterized by a basally strongly swollen second metasomal sternum. These species may form a monophyletic group and show the distribution pattern of so−called “Himalayan Corridor origin”, namely they occur in the zone from the southern slopes of the Himalayas, through the eastern slope of the Himalayas and eastern coastal areas of continental Asia and Taiwan, to Ussuri and eastern Siberia in Russia and Hokkaido in Japan (Nguyen et al. 2011). Locating in the easternmost part of the eastern slope of the Himalayas, the Polistella fauna in the northern parts of Vietnam would be a key to understanding the process of forming the current distribution pattern of these Polistella wasps.
While the Polistella fauna of northwestern Vietnam has been more or less well studied (Nguyen et al. 2011), that in northeastern Vietnam has been little known. The present study has recognized seven species of Polistes (Polistella) including a new species described herein to occur in northeastern Vietnam. Their distribution records are remarked. Nests of three species (Polistes delhiensis Das & Gupta, Polistes mandarinus de Saussure and are also described.

Materials and methods

Based on the geographical and climatic features, “northeastern Vietnam” is used in the present paper for the area consisting of the following provinces: Ha Giang, Cao Bang, Tuyen Quang, Bac Kan, Thai Nguyen, Lang Son, Bac Giang and Quang Ninh (Fig. 1). The specimens examined in the present study are unless otherwise mentioned deposited in the Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources in Hanoi; they were mainly collected by ourselves during a research trip to Cao Bang, Bac Kan and Bac Giang made in 2012.


Figure 1. Map of Vietnam showing the provinces in the northeastern part (green) and those in which the specimens examined were collected (light violet).
The adult morphological and color characters except for male terminal sterna and genitalia were observed on pinned−and−dried specimens under a stereomicroscope. Apical parts of male metasomata were dissected for the terminal sterna and genitalia. They were put in lactic acid for several hours, washed in distilled water, and observed in glycerin under a stereomicroscope. The terminology of male genitalia follows Kojima (1999). Drawings were made with the aid of a drawing tube. Photos were taken with Panasonic Lumix DMC−FX 100 and Leica EZ4HD 3.0 MegaPixel Digital Stereo Microscope, using LAS exclusive microscopy software (LAS EZ 2.0.0).
In the descriptions of morphology, the following abbreviations are used: POD, distance between the inner margins of the posterior ocelli; OOD, distance between the outer margin of the posterior ocellus and the inner margin of the eye at vertex; Od, transverse diameter of the posterior ocellus.
The parts measured for the morphometric are defined as follows: body length, the lengths of head, mesosoma and first two metasomal segments combined; clypeus width, the distance between the uppermost points where clypeus touches the eyes; clypeus height, the distance from the bottom of the dorsal emergination to the apex; distance between inner eye margins at vertex and at clypeus, respectively the distance between the inner eye margins at the level of anterior ocellus in frontal view of head and at the level where inner eye margins approached each other most closely; interantennal and antennocular distances, the distance between the inner margins of antennal sockets and between the outer margin of antennal socket and inner eye margin at the level of middle of antennal socket, respectively; antennal socket width, the transverse diameter; eye and gena width, the maximum width for each in strictly lateral view of the head; metasomal tergum I length, the distance in lateral view from the posterior end of the basal slit for the reception of the propodeal suspensory ligament to the posterodorsal end of the tergum; metasomal tergum II, length, the distance in lateral view from the bottom of the basal depression or “neck” to the posterodorsal end of the tergum; metasomal tergum I and II width, the maximum width for each in dorsal view.

Taxonomy and distribution

Polistes (Polistella) dawnae Dover & Rao, 1922
Polistes dawnae Dover & Rao, 1922: 248, female, Dawna Hills, Burma [Myanmar], [holotype in the Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta].
Material examined. Northeastern provinces: Bac Kan: 2 females, Kim Hy NP, Na Ri, 22°14'N, 106°05'E, alt. ca 300 m, 3.VIII.2012, L.T.P. Nguyen et al. Other province: Son La: 1 female, Nong Truong, Moc Chau, 20°50'N, 104°40.283'E, alt. ca 950 m, 2.VII.2013, D.D. Nguyen.
Remarks on distribution. Polistes dawnae, one of the two species characterized by a basally strongly swollen second metasomal sternum and recorded in northeastern Vietnam (the other is Polistes mandarinus), was originally described from Dawna Hills [16°50'N, 98°15'E], northern Myanmar, and has been recently recorded in northeastern part of Laos (Gusenleitner 2013) and northern Vietnam, such as in the provinces of Lai Chau, Dien Bien, Hoa Binh (Nguyen et al. 2011), Bac Kan and Son La (present study). This species may be restricted in its distribution to the areas on the eastern slope of the Himalaya.
Polistes (Polistella) mandarinus de Saussure, 1853
Polistes mandarinus de Saussure 1853 in de Saussure 1853−1858: 58, female, “Le norde de la Chine” [lectotype in The Natural History Museum, London].
Material examined. Northeastern provinces: Cao Bang: 12 males, 4 females, Phi Oac Nature Reserve, Thanh Cong, Nguyen Binh, 22°32.5'N, 105°53'E, alt. ca 1000 m, L.T.P. Nguyen et al. [11 males, 3 females, Nest#VN−NE2012−P−07, 8.VIII.2012; 1 male & 1 female, 9.VIII.2012]; 2 females, Phi Oac Nature Reserve, 22°35.567'N, 105°51.417'E, alt. ca 1035 m, 7−10.V.2013, T.V. Hoang. Bac Kan: 7 females, Kim Hy NP, Na Ri, alt. ca 600−700 m, 22°19'N, 105°54'E, Nest#VN−NE2012−P−03, 4.VIII.2012, L.T.P. Nguyen et al. Other province: Hai Phong: 1 female, Cat Ba NP, Cat Hai,20°47'N, 106°59'E, 26.VII.2013, L.T.P. Nguyen & D.D. Nguyen.
Remarks on distribution records. The distribution records of Polistes mandarinus reported may need confirmation as several species were erroneously identified as “Polistes mandarinus” (see Kojima 1997). In Vietnam, this species has been known from the provinces of Quang Tri (Nguyen and Ta 2008), Phu Tho, Vinh Phuc, Thua Thien Hue (Nguyen et al. 2011), Cao Bang, Bac Kan, Hai Phong (present study); this species may occur in the areas north of the Hai Van Pass, but its occurrence in nothwestern Vietnam needs further researches. The species has also been recorded from eastern China and Tibet (Hou et al. 2012) and Korea (Carpenter 1996), however its occurrence in Korea may need confirmation (J.K. Kim & J. Kojima, unpublished data).
Polistes (Polistella) delhiensis Das & Gupta, 1989
Polistes delhiensis Das & Gupta, 1989: 63, female, Delhi [India], [holotype in Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta].
Material examined. Northeastern provinces: Ha Giang: 1 female, Cao Bo, Vi Xuyen, 22°44'N, 104°54'E, alt. ca 532 m, 21−24.IV.2000, L.T.P. Nguyen; Bac Kan: Kim Hy NP, Na Ri, 22°14'N, 106°05'E, alt. ca 600−700 m, 4.VIII.2012, L.T.P. Nguyen et al. [1 female, 3 females of Nest# VN−NE2012−P−04]; 2 females, Kim Hy NP, Vu Muon, Bach Thong, alt. ca 550 m, 22°12.5'N, 105°58'E, 5.VIII.2012, L.T.P. Nguyen et al. Other provinces: Phu Tho: 2 females, Xuan Son NP, 21°10'N, 104°58'E, alt. ca 400 m, 11−12.VI.2004, L.T.P. Nguyen; Hoa Binh: Pa Co, Mai Chau, 20°44'N, 104°55'E [1 female, alt. ca 1000 m, 27.VI.2001; 2 females, alt. ca 1000 m, 22−23.IV.2002, T.V. Hoang; 1 female, alt. ca 1350 m, 28.VIII.2006, L.T.P. Nguyen, F. Saito & J. Kojima]; Vinh Phuc: 1 female, Tam Dao NP, 21°32'N, 105°37'E, alt. ca 800 m, 2.VII.2003, L.T.P. Nguyen.
Remarks on distribution. This species could be placed in the “Stenopolistes” group and has been recorded from Delhi in India and North Vietnam [Son La (Nguyen and Pham 2011), Ha Giang, Bac Kan, Phu Tho, Hoa Binh, Vinh Phuc (present study)]. The other two species of the “Stenopolistes” group occurring in Vietnam, Polistes nigritarsis Cameron and Polistes khasianus Cameron, similarly have such the disjunct distribution records, which are probably due to lack of intensive field works in the areas in the southern slope and western part of the eastern slope of the Himalaya.
Polistes (Polistella) japonicus de Saussure, 1858
Polistes japonicus de Saussure, 1858: 260, female, “le Japon” [lectotype in the Museum d’Histoire Naturelle, Géneve].
Material examined. Northeastern provinces: Bac Kan: 4 females, Kim Hy NP, Na Ri, 21°15'N, 106°06'E, alt. ca 270 m, 3−4.VIII.2012, J. Kojima, H. Nugroho et al.; Bac Giang: 2 females, Thanh Son, Son Dong, 21°13'N, 106°45'E, alt. ca 300 m, 1.VII.2010, P.H. Pham; Tay Yen Tu NP, Son Dong,21°21'N, 106°11'E, P.H. Pham [2 females, alt. ca 200−300 m, 3.VII.2010; 1 female, alt. 150 m, 2.VII.2010]; 1 female, Khe Ro, Son Dong, 17.V.2013, D.D. Tran. Other provinces: Son La: 1 female, 20°50'37"N, 104°40'17"E, alt. ca 950m, Nong Truong, Moc Chau, 2.VII.2013, D.D. Nguyen; Lang Son: 1 female, Bac Son, 21°54'N, 106°19'E, 1.VII.2003, L.X. Truong. Other provinces: Phu Tho: 1 male, 6 females, Xuan Son NP, 21°10'N, 104°58'E, alt. ca 200−600 m, 13−16.VI.2004, L.T.P.Nguyen; 1 female, Xuan Dai, Tan Son, 20.V.2011, P.H. Pham; Ninh Binh: 1 male, 3 females, Cuc Phuong NP, 20°19'N, 105°37'E, 7−9.V.2002, T. V. Hoang; Thanh Hoa: 1 male, 2 females, Lung Cao, Ba Thuoc, 20°28'N, 105°10'E, alt. ca 500 m, 12.VI.2003; 1 female, Hon Can, Van Xuan, Thuong Xuan, 23−24.VIII.2012, L.T.P. Nguyen & T.V. Hoang; Nghe An: Mon Son, Con Cuong 18°56'N, 104°56'E [2 males, 2 females, 22−24.VII.2004, L.T.P. Nguyen; 1 female, 9.VIII.2002; 3 females, 11.VIII.2002; 2 females, 13.IX.2005]; 1 female, Pu Mat NP,19°6'N, 104°44'E, 26.VII.2004, L.T.P. Nguyen; 1 female, Chau Cuong, Quy Hop, 19°21'N, 105°6'E, 14−19.VII.2004, H.X. Le; 1 female, Chau Thanh, Quy Hop, 19°23'N, 105°2'E, 16.VII.2004, H.X. Le; 1 female, Co Phat, Con Cuong, 18°53'N, 104°52'E, ca 200 m, 22.VII.2006, ISD−c; 1 female, Tuong Duong, Con Cuong, 19°20'N, 104°34'E, 12.VII.2006; Ha Tinh: 4 males, 1female, Son Tay, Huong Son, 18°27'N, 105°20'E, 19−27.V.2004, L.T.P. Nguyen; 1 female, Rao An, Huong Son, 18°34'N, 105°10'E, 20.IV.1998, L.D. Khuat.
Remarks on distribution. In Vietnam, this species has been recorded in the provinces of Ha Giang, Lai Chau, Hoa Binh, Ha Noi, Thua Thien Hue (Nguyen and Khuat 2003), Phu Tho, Hai Phong (Nguyen et al. 2005), Quang Binh, Quang Tri, Thua Thien Hue, Quang Nam (Nguyen and Ta 2008), Son La (Nguyen and Pham 2011), Bac Kan, Lang Son, Bac Giang, Ninh Binh, Thanh Hoa, Nghe An, Ha Tinh (present study), showing that the species is widely distributed in Vietnam except for southern provinces. This species could occur widely in eastern parts of subtropical and temperate Asia, from Vietnam, through eastern parts of continental China, to Korea and Honshu Island of Japan; its closely related species, Polistes formosanus Sonan may co-occur with this species in Taiwan and only Polistes formosanus is known to occur in the Nansei Islands (Saito et al. 2007).
Polistes (Polistella) sagittarius de Saussure, 1853
Polistes sagittarius de Saussure, 1853: 56, female, “Les Indes−Orientales, la Chine” [syntypes in the Museum d’Histoire Naturelle, Genève, and The Natural History Museum, London].
Material examined. Northeastern provinces Ha Giang: 1 male, Tung Ba, Vi Xuyen, 24.VI.2013, T.V. Nguyen; Bac Kan: 2 females, Kim Hy NP, Na Ri, alt. ca 600−700 m, 22°19'N, 105°54'E, 4.VIII.2012, L.T.P. Nguyen et al.; Bac Giang: 1 female, Thanh Son, Son Dong, 21°13'N, 106°45'E, 7.VII.2010, D.D. Tran. Other provinces: Hai Phong: 1 female, Cat Ba NP, Cat Hai, 20°43'N, 107°04'E, alt. ca. 30 m, 26.VII.2013, L.T.P. Nguyen & D.D. Nguyen;Other provinces: Lao Cai: 1 female, Ta Chai, Bac Ha, 22°31'N, 104°17'E, 26.VI.2008, L.T.P. Nguyen & P.H. Pham; Nghe An: 1 female, Mon Son, Con Cuong, 18°56'N, 104°56'E, 27.VII.2004, L.T.P. Nguyen; 1 female, Khe Bo, Con Cuong,19°03'N, 104°43'E, alt. ca 120 m, 25−28.IV.1998, J.M. Carpenter; Gia Lai: 3 females, Ia Pal, Chu Se, 13°39'N, 108°08'E, alt. ca 370 m, 20−21.VII.2012, L.T.P. Nguyen; Dak Lak: 1 female, Buon Ho, 121°59'N, 108°14'E, alt. ca 770 m, 23.VII.2012, L.T.P. Nguyen; Binh Duong: 2 females, Binh Hoa, Thuan An, 10°54'N, 106°43'E, 20.VII.2002, L.D. Khuat.
Remarks on distribution. This species is widely distributed in southern Asia with subtropical and tropical climates, from northwestern India in the west, through continental southeast Asia, to Palawan in the Phillippines, Sulawesi and Flores in the Lesser Sunda Islands in the east. Recorded widely in the provinces of Ha Giang, Lai Chau, Vinh Phuc, Ha Tay (Nguyen and Khuat 2003), Son La, Hoa Binh (Nguyen and Pham 2011), Lao Cai, Bac Kan, Bac Giang, Hai Phong, Nghe An, Gia Lai, Dak Lak, Binh Duong (present study), this species may occur throughout Vietnam.
Polistes (Polistella) strigosus Bequaert, 1940
Polistes strigosus Bequaert, 1940: 269, female, male “Wong-Sa-Shui, South Kwangsi, China” [holotype female in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, USA].
Material examined. Northeastern provinces: Ha Giang: 1male, 6 females, Cao Bo, Vi Xuyen, 22°44'N, 104°54'E, 21.X.2006, L.D. Khuat; Cao Bang: 1 female, Phi Oac NR, Thanh Cong, Nguyen Binh, 22°35'34"N, 105°51'25"E, alt. ca 1035 m, 7−10.V.2013, T.V. Hoang; Lang Son: 1 female, Nong truong Thai Binh, Dinh Lap, 16.V.2013, D.D. Tran; Bac Giang: Son Dong, P.H. Pham [1 male, 2 females, Thanh Lam, 21°20'N, 106°19'E, alt. ca 120 m, 4.VII.2010; 1 female, Tay Yen Tu NP, 21°24'N, 106°56'E, alt. ca 150m, 2.VII.2010]. Other provinces: Vinh Phuc: 1 female, Tam Dao NP,21°27'N, 105°39'E, alt. ca 1200 m, 2.VII.2003, L.T.P. Nguyen; Ha Noi: 1 female, Khat Thuong, Ba Vi, 21°5'N, 105°22'E, alt. ca >100 m, 16.VIII.2006, ISD−c; 1 female, Yen Bai, Van Hoa, Ba Vi,21°1'N, 105°27'E, 15.VIII.2006, ISD−c; Nghe An: 3 females, Chau Cuong, Quy Hop, 19°21'N, 105°6'E, 14−19.VII.2004, H.X. Le; 1 female, Pha Lay, Mon Son, Con Cuong, 18°56'N, 104°56'E, 9.VIII.2002, ISD−c; Ha Tinh: 1 male, 1 female, Son Tay, Huong Son, 18°27'N, 105°21'E, 19−27.V.2004, L.T.P. Nguyen; Ta Rut, Dakrong, Quang Tri 16°25'N, 106°59'E [4 females, 17.VII.2004; 9 females, alt. ca 400−500 m, 17.VII.2004], ISD−c.
Remarks on distribution. The following three subspecies are currently recognized in Polistes strigosus: the nominotypoical subspecies known to occur in Laos, China and Taiwan; minimus Bequaert, 1940 distributed in Nepal, Malaysia (Sabah) and the Philippines; and atratus Das and Gupta, 1984 in India. The color form from Vietnam agrees with non of the above-mentioned subspecies. It has the head reddish brown, mesosoma dark yellowish brown with metanotum and propodeum dark yellow, metasomal terga I−III dark yellow, and the other metasomal terga brownish black (in some specimens, all metasomal terga dark yellow). This species is widely recorded from the provinces of Hai Phong (Nguyen et al. 2005), Quang Binh, Quang Tri, Thua Thien Hue (Nguyen and Ta 2008), Hoa Binh (Nguyen and Pham 2011), Ha Giang, Cao Bang, Lang Son, Vinh Phuc, Bac Giang, Ha Noi, Nghe An, Ha Tinh (present study), and may occurs in eastern parts of Vietnam north of the Hai Van Pass.



Nests

Polistes (Polistella) mandarinus de Saussure, 1853
Hou et al. (2012) described the nest of this species based on the nests observed in Tibet, with light ferruginous brown (juggling from the figures). A nest (#VN−NE2012−P−02) (Fig. 18) that we collected, together with 3 females and 11 males, at Phi Oac NR, Cao Bang Province has similar features of that described by Hou et al. (2012) although it differs in coloration. Our nest has 19 cells and had produced more than ten adult wasps. Its structural and color characters are as follows: Comb “paper”−like in texture, made mainly of long fine plant fibers and wasp adult oral secretion, more or less uniformly dark greysish−brown in cell walls, suboval (about 30 mm × 20 mm) in view from side of cell opening, expanded excentrically from the single terminal petiole, with surface corresponding to cell bottom weakly convex; Petiole single, terminal, attached to the border between bottoms of the first two cells, 2.5 mm long and 1.2 mm × 1.5 mm thick at the mid−length, with thin central core of plant fibers, enlarged strictly with adult oral secretion, blakish brown and lustrous, secretion coat widely expanded on comb back around the petiole and on substrate in thin film holding the fern vain; Cells generally arranged in regular rows, pentagonal at open end when surrounded by other cells, with free margins rounded, each cell weakly expanded towards open end, 5.3 mm × 5.6 mm (range 5.0 mm × 5.4 mm – 5.8 mm × 5.9 mm; n=17) wide at open end, 3.4 mm (range 3.1−3.8 mm; n=11) wide at bottom and 19 mm (range 15−22.5 mm; n=13) deep in cells containing pupae or having produced adult, cell wall about 1.12 mm thick; Cocoon cap white, produced beyond rim of cell by 0.5−4.5 mm, slightly domed.


Nest of Polistes delhiensis.
A pre−emergence stage (before any adult wasps’ emergence) nest (#VN−NE2012−P−02) (Fig. 19) was collected, together with 4 adult females, at Kim Hy NP, Bac Kan Province. The nest was attached to a rattan shoot, at about 2.5 m above the ground, and has 26 cells, with the fifth (=last) instar larvae as the oldest immature (for immature composition, see Fig. 19). The fifth instar larvae were artificially fed with fresh hornet (Vespa) eggs, and one of them successfully spun the cocoon. The structural and color characters are as follows: Comb “paper”−like in texture, made mainly of long fine plant fibers, usually with 2−3 mm wide horizontal stripes of different colors (pale gray to gray and pale brownish−gray) in cell walls, subcircular (about 30 mm × 25 mm) in view from side of cell opening, expanded concentrically from the single petiole, with surface corresponding to cell bottom weakly convex; Petiole single, central, attached to the border between bottoms of the first two cells, 3.8 mm long and 1.2 mm × 1.2 mm thick at the mid−length, with thin central core of plant fibers, enlarged strictly with oral secretion of adults, brown and lustrous, secretion coat widely expanded on comb back around the petiole and on substrate in about 8 mm × 9 mm subcircular thin film; Cells generally arranged in regular rows, pentagonal at open end when surrounded by other cells, with free margins rounded, each cell weakly expanded towards open end, 6.3 mm × 6.7 mm (range 6.0 mm × 6.1 mm – 7.1 mm × 7.2 mm; n=5) wide at open end, 5.1 mm (range 4.9−5.4 mm; n=5) wide at bottom and 18.5 mm (range 17−19.5 mm; n=5) deep in cells containing mature larvae, cell wall about 0.09 mm thick;Cocoon cap white, slightly domed.

Polistes (Polistella) delhiensis Das & Gupta, 1989

A pre−emargence stage (before any adult wasps’ emergence) nest (# VN−NE2012−P−04) (Fig. 20) examined was collected, together with 3 females, at Kim Hy NP, Bac Kan province. The nest was attached to a broad leaf, at about 1 m above the ground, and has 19 cells, which contained the pupae as the oldest immatures. The structural and morphological characters are as follows: Comb “paper”−like in texture, made mainly of long fine plant fibers mixed with adult oral secretion, pale brown to brown in cell walls, subcircular (about 19 mm × 17 mm) in view from side of cell opening, expanded concentrically from the single petiole, with surface corresponding to cell bottom slightly convex; Petiole single, central, attached to the border between bottoms of the first two cells, 2.5 mm long and 0.5 mm × 0.7 mm thick at the mid−length, with thin central core of plant fibers, enlarged strictly with adult oral secretion, dark brown and lustrous, secretion coat widely expanded on comb back around the petiole and on substrate in about 2.5 mm × 5 mm thin film; Cells generally arranged in regular rows, pentagonal at open end when surrounded by other cells, with free margins rounded, each cell weakly expanded towards open end, 4.4 mm × 4.5 mm (range 4.3 mm × 4.4 mm – 4.5 mm × 4.5 mm; n=4) wide at open end, 3.2 mm (range 3.0−3.3 mm; n=4) wide at bottom and 14 mm (range 13.5−14.5 mm; n=4) deep in cocooned, cell wall about 0.06 mm thick; Cocoon cap pale greenish−yellow, prominently produced beyond rim of cell by 5−6 mm, slightly domed.

Key to species of Polistes (Polistella) of northeastern Vietnam

The characters given in the key are applicable to both sexes unless when specified.
1
Metasomal sternum II basally strongly swollen, in lateral view bulging anteriorly (Fig. 21)
2
Metasomal sternum II gradually swollen posteriorly, in lateral view with ventral margin weakly and smoothly curved (Fig. 8)
3
2
Clypeus in lateral view only weakly convex anteriorly (Fig. 22). Disc of scutellum nearly flat, in lateral view smoothly passing from dorsal margin of mesoscutum (Fig. 24). Male clypeus as wide as high
Polistes dawnae Dover & Rao
Clypeus in lateral view distincly convex (Fig. 23). Disc of scutellum convex (Fig. 25). Male clypeus about 1.1 times as wide as high
Polistes mandarinus de Saussure
3
Medium-sized wasps; fore wing length 10.5−14.5 mm. Jugal lobe of fore wing much reduced. Marginal cell of fore wing with dark spot at apex
Polistes delhiensis Das & Goupta
Large-sized wasps; fore wing length 15.5−18 mm. Jugal lobe of fore wing large, rounded. Marginal cell of fore wing without dark spot
4
4
Pronotum with strong striation (Figs 26, 27) Female metasomal sterna without longitudinal ridges
5
Pronotum with weak striation weak or absent. Female metasomal sternum IV medially with paired longitudinal ridges (Fig. 9)
6
5
Pronotal striation somewhat irregular (Fig. 26), spaces between striae densely and distincly punctured. Dorsal surface of pronotum smoothly curved down to the lateral surface. Male metasomal sternum VII without tubercle. Clypeus, mesoscutum, metasomal segments III−VI entirely black
Polistes sagittarius de Saussure
Pronotal striation regular and very strong (Fig. 27). Border between dorsal and lateral surfaces of pronotum distinctly angled. Male metasomal sternum VII with weak tubercle (Fig. 28). Clypeus, mesoscutum, metasomal segments II−VI etirtely brown
Polistes strigosus Bequaert
6
Pronotum with dense, coarse punctures, their edges forming reticulation (Fig. 6). Disc of scutellum convex. Metasomal sternum II in lateral view convex ventrally in anterior half. Anterior margin of male clypeus nearly straight (Fig. 10). Metasomal terga brown, with some black marks. Wings hyaline
.
Pronotum with sparse, small punctures. Disc of scutellum hardly convex. Metasomal sternum II in lateral view weakly convex ventrally in the anterior two thirds. Anterior margin of male clypeus rounded. Metasomal terga yellow with dark brown and/or black bands. Wings infuscate
Polistes japonicus de Saussure
 Figures 21–28. Polistes species characters. 21, 23, 25 Polistes mandarinus: 21Metasomal segment I and II, lateral view 23 Head, lateral view 25Mesosoma, lateral view 22, 24 Polistes dawnae: 22 Head, lateral view 24 Mesosoma, lateral view 26P. sagittarius, pronotum, lateral view 27–28 Polistes strigosus: 27Pronotum, lateral view 28Metasomal sternum VII, ventral view. Scale 1 mm.

Conclusion

Compared with the Polistella fauna in mountainous areas of northern (mainly northwestern) Vietnam, where 14 Polistella species have been recognized (Nguyen et al. 2011), Polistella fauna in northeastern Vietnam, with only seven species, is poorer even though the environmental, especially climatic conditions, in northeastern Vietnam are expected to be more diverse and hence to harbor richer fauna in terms of number of species than in mountainous areas of northern Vietnam. On the other hand, however, in contrast to the fact that all the 14 Polistella species occurring in mountainous areas in northern Vietnam may belong to a possible monophyletic species group that is characterized by a basally strongly swollen second metasomal sternum and shows ditribution pattern of so−called “Himalayan Corridor origin”, seven species recognized in northeastern Vietnam are comprised of at least three species groups, thus they are more diverse phylogenetically than those of mountainous areas of norther Vietnam. Namely, other than Polistes dawnae and Polistes mandarinus in the species group characterized by a basally strongly swollen second metasomal sternum, Polistes delhiensis belongs to so-called “Stenopolistes” group, the species belonging to which are distributed in tropical and subtropical continental Asia, so-called Sunda Land (Malay Peninsular, Sumatra and Borneo) and also in Papuan Region, including Pacific Islands. The last group, including the four species recognized in northeastern Vietnam, Polistes japonicus, Polistes sagittarius, Polistes strigosus and is the Polistes sagittarius group of Carpenter (1996), which is rather ill-defined and known to be widely distributed in Oriental Region and East Asia.

Citation: Nguyen LTP, Kojima J (2014) Distribution and nests of paper wasps of Polistes(Polistella) in northeastern Vietnam, with description of a new species (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae). ZooKeys 368: 45–63. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.368.6426
15/07/2014

Ba loài Địa y mới ở Hoà Bình, Tuyên Quang

Các ảnh A-C- thuộc loài Willeya pallidopora, D-F- thuộc loài Địa y lồi Willeya protrudens, G-H- thuộc loài Địa y sậm Willeya fusca; I- thuộc loài Địa y nhẵn Willeya laevigata. Ảnh Gueidan et al. British Lichen Society, 2014. 
(BiodiVn) - Địa y bao gồm các loài thực vật nhỏ, rất phổ biến nhưng lại ít được nghiên cứu ở Việt Nam. Chúng thường mọc bám trên các vỏ cây, phiến đá ẩm với màu đặc trưng như nấm mốc xám trắng. Có lẽ vì thiếu tư liệu mà đa đạng các loài địa y ở Việt Nam ẩn chứa nhiều tiềm năng cần được các nhà khoa học khám phá. Cũng vì thế, khả năng phát hiện loài mới ở nhóm thực vật này là rất lớn.
Theo BiodiVn cập nhật thì hồi tháng 6 vừa qua, một nhóm các nhà khoa học đã . Vừa xong, chúng tôi lại nhận được một bài báo công bố 3 loài Địa y mới thuộc chi Willeya phát hiện từ Việt Nam. Công bố này được ba nhà khoa học là Đỗ Văn Trường, Lữ Thị Ngân (Bảo tàng Thiên nhiên Việt Nam - Hà Nội - Việt Nam) và Cécile Gueidan (Bảo tàng Lịch sử Tự nhiên - Luân Đôn - Anh) mô tả và phát hành trên tạp chí The Lichenologist (Tập 46, số 4, trang 515–533, tháng 7, 2014) của Hội Địa y Anh. 

Các loài mới gồm những loài dưới đây.

1. Địa y sậm Willeya fusca Gueidan sp. nov.
Phân bố: Khu BTTN Hang Kia - Pà Cò, Mai Châu, Hoà Bình

2. Địa y nhẵn Willeya laevigata Gueidan sp. nov.
Phân bố: Pà Cò, Mai Châu, Hoà Bình.

3. Địa y lồi Willeya protrudens Gueidan sp. nov.
Phân bố: Khu BTTN Na Hang, Tuyên Quang; Khu BTTN Hang Kia - Pà Cò, Mai Châu, Hoà Bình; Lạc Nông, Bắc Mê, Hà Giang. 

Ngoài ra nhóm tác giả còn đề nghị đưa ra 7 các tên mới (tên hợp nhất) như sau: 
1. Willeya australis (Groenh.) Gueidan comb. nov. (Staurothele australis Groenh.)
2a. Willeya diffractella (Nyl.) Mull. Arg. var. diffractella (Verrucaria diffractella Nyl.)

2b. Willeya diffractella (Mull. Arg.) Gueidan var. flavicans comb. nov. (Staurothele diffractella var. flavicans Mull. Arg.)

3. Willeya iwatsukii (Harada) Gueidan comb. nov. (Staurothele iwatsukii Harada)

4. Willeya japonica (B. de Lesd.) Gueidan comb. nov. (Staurothele japonica B. de Lesd.)

5a. Willeya malayensis (Zahlbr.) Gueidan comb. nov. var. malayensis (Staurothele malayensis Zahlbr. var. malayensis)

5b. Willeya malayensis var. vegetior (Zahlbr.) Gueidan comb. nov. (Staurothele malayensis var. vegetior Zahlbr.)

6. Willeya microlepis (Zahlbr.) Gueidan comb. nov. (Staurothele microlepis Zahlbr.)

7. Willeya pallidopora (P. M. McCarthy) Gueidan comb. nov. (Staurothele pallidopora P. M. McCarthy)



Phylogeny and taxonomy of Staurothele (Verrucariaceae, lichenized ascomycetes) from the karst of northern Vietnam
Cécile GUEIDAN, Truong VAN DO and Ngan Thi LU
Abstract: The crustose genus Staurothele (Verrucariaceae, Ascomycota) is a common component of the lichen flora from subneutral to alkaline silicate rocks in temperate to cold-temperate climates. Our field study in the karst system of northern Vietnam showed that it is also common on dry to humid limestone in the wet tropics. Molecular data revealed that species of Staurothele from Vietnam belong to an unnamed clade sister to the genus Endocarpon, together with the tropical Australian species Staurothele pallidopora and Staurothele diffractella, a North American species recently transferred to Endocarpon based on molecular data. The genus Willeyais here resurrected for this clade of crustose epilithic Staurothele with pale ascospores. Eight new combinations are proposed and three new species of Willeyaare described from Vietnam. Sampling tropical members of a lichen family previously mostly known from temperate areas contributed significantly to improving its generic classification.

Key words: classification, Endocarpon, generic delimitation, lichens, Verrucariales, Willeya


Photos Gueidan et al. British Lichen Society, 2014.

Willeya fusca Gueidan sp. nov.

MycoBank No.: MB807220. Differing from other species of Willeyaby its dark brown areolate thallus.

Type: Vietnam, Hoa Binh Province, Mai Chau District, Pa Co County, Hang Kia-Pa Co Nature Reserve, on calcareous outcrops in a deforested area, 24 February 2011,C. Gueidan1877 (BM—holotype). ITS barcode: KF959805. (Fig. 4A–C)

Thallus crustose, epilithic, determinate, matt, sometimes greyish-pruinose due to the presence of an epinecral layer, smooth, dark greyish brown to black, becoming slightly darker when wet, rimose-areolate, 0 10–0 25 mm thick, areoles 0 1–0 5 mm diam., often larger when fertile (0 5–1 0 mm). Upper cortexabsent to thin (<10mm) and weakly differentiated from the algal layer (pseudocortex, as defined in Gueidanet al. 2007), with hyaline to pale brown rounded cells (4–6mm diam.) and a thin (5–10mm) epinecral layer. Algal layer25–100mm thick, with a green Diplosphaera-like alga, eglobose, 6–8mm diam., single to clustered into Peritheciaimmersed in the thallus, 0 4–0 6 mm, one per areole, forming only slight pro-jections, with only the black ostiole visible at the thallus surface. Involucrellum black, ap-pressed to the excipulum wall and covering the upper part of the perithecium down to half the height to entirely covering the perithecium by fusing with the black basal layer, 50–150mm thick, contiguous with the excip-ulum to spreading laterally at the base (space between involucrellum and excipulum then filled with cells with thick melanized walls, 4–7mm diam.). Centrumeglobose, 250–300 mm diam. Excipulumdark brown to black, 10–25mm thick. Periphysespresent in ostiolar canal, pale brown, unbranched, sep-tate, 30–40 2–3mm. Pseudoparaphyseslining the upper part of the perithecial cavity, unbranched, septate, sometimes swollen at the apex, 20–45 1 5–3 0 mm. Interascal filamentsabsent at maturity, reduced to a

KI+ blue hymenial gel. Hymenial algal cells elongated to cylindrical (2 5–)3 5–7 0 (–8 0) (1 8–)2 0–2 5(–3 0) mm. Asci clavate, fissitunicate, 8-spored, 75–90 15–20mm. Ascosporescolourless to pale yellow, narrowly to broadly ellipsoid, muriform, (20–)22–28(–30) (9–)10–13(–15)mm.

Pycnidianot seen.

Etymology. The epithet fusca refers to the dark brown to black colour of the upper sur-face of this species.
Note. Two rather old perithecia from spec-imen CG1912 did not have hymenial algal cells.
Additional specimen examined. Vietnam:Hoa Bınh Province: Mai Chau District, Pa Co County, Hang Kia-Pa Co Nature Reserve, on calcareous rocks, 2011,C. Gueidan1912 (BM, VNMN).
Willeya laevigata Gueidan sp. nov.
MycoBank No.: MB807224
Differing from Willeya malayensisin having larger asco-mata and spores, a thicker thallus and an involucrellum closely appressed to the excipulum wall, as opposed to not appressed to the excipulum wall and laterally spread-ing.
Type: Vietnam, Hoa Bınh Province, Mai Chau District, Pa Co County, close to the limit with Son La Province, on shaded calcareous outcrops within the rain-forest, 25 February 2011, C. Gueidan1852 (BM—holotype). ITS barcode: KF959807. (Fig. 4D–F)
Thalluscrustose, semi-endolithic, deter-minate, matt,esmooth, greyish to brown-ish green, becoming olive-green when wet, continuous to rimose here and there, thick (0 15–0 60 mm). Upper cortexthin (5–15mm) and weakly differentiated from the algal layer (pseudocortex), with hyaline to pale brown rounded to angular cells (2–6mm diam.).Algal layer25–60mm thick, with a green Diplosphaera-like alga,eglobose, 4–8 mm diam., single or clustered in pairs,e organized in columns.Medullathick (250–
500 mm), endolithic, inspersed with rock crystals throughout, prosoplectenchymatous to paraplectenchymatous, with cells 5 0–7 5 mm diam. Basal carbonaceous layer absent. Prothallusnot apparent. Peritheciaentirely immersed in the thallus, not forming projections, large (c.0 6mm wide), with an ostiole visible on the thallus surface. Ostiole pale brown, sometimes sur-rounded by a black involucrellar ring. In older perithecia, an additional brown ring, resulting from the pigmentation of the upper part of the excipulum, can also be seen inside the black involucrellar ring. Involucrellum black, appressed to the excipulum wall and covering the upper part of the perithecium down to a third or half of its height, enlarging laterally at the lower extremities, inspersed with rock crystals, up to 200–300mm thick, scleroplectenchymatous, with melanized and thick-walled cells (7 5–10 0mm diam.).Cen-trum globose, 400–600mm diam. Excipulum pale, but becoming dark brown around the ostiole in older perithecia, 10–20mm thick. Periphyses present in ostiolar canal, pale brown, unbranched, septate, 25–40 2–3 mm. Pseudoparaphyseslining the upper part of the perithecial cavity, unbranched, septate, 40–50 1 5–3 0 mm.Interascal filaments absent at maturity, reduced to a KI+ blue hymenial gel.Hymenial algal cellselongated to cylindrical, sometimes in pairs or short filaments, 2 0–8 0 1 5–3 0mm.Asciclav-ate, fissitunicate, 8-spored, 90–100 20–30 mm.Ascosporescolourless to pale, narrowly to broadly ellipsoid, muriform, (20–)25–29(–31) 11–15mm. Pycnidianot seen.
Etymology. The epithet laevigata refers to the rather smooth appearance of the upper surface of this species.
Willeya protrudens Gueidan sp. nov.
MycoBank No.: MB807229. Differing from other species ofWilleyaby its perithecia characteristically forming projections.
Type: Vietnam, Tuyen Quang Province, Na Hang District, Na Hang Nature Reserve, on calcareous out-crops, 4 March 2011,C. Gueidan1945 (BM—holotype; VNMN—isotype). ITS barcode: KF959802 (Fig. 4G–I)
Thallus crustose epilithic, determinate, matt, smooth, greyish green to olive-brown, green to olive-green when wet, continuous to rimose at the periphery and rimose to sub-areolate at the centre. Irregular areoles and deeper cracks mostly found around the perithecia, with one perithecium per areole. Areoles 0 2–1 0 mm diam. Thallus thin at the margin (50–100mm), but thicker around the perithecia (200–300mm) due to the pres-ence of a black basal layer.Upper cortexthin (10–20 mm) and weakly differentiated from the algal layer (pseudocortex), with hyaline cells rounded to angular, 4–6mm diam. Algal layer 40–60mm thick, with a greenDiplo-sphaera-like alga,eglobose, 4–10mm diam., single or by pair, scattered throughout the algal layer. Medullaabsent. Black basal layer present at the centre of the thallus when perithecia densely aggregated, 200–250mm thick, possibly deriving from laterally spreading involuvrellae. Prothalluspale but becoming dark brown when contiguous with other lichen thalli. Perithecia protruding, entirely or only partly covered by the thallus, 0 3–0 8 mm, characteristically forming projections. Ostiole visible, brown, often surrounded by aelarge black involucrellar ring.Involucrellumblack, spreading laterally and not contiguous with the excipulum, 75–175 mm thick. Space be-tween involucrellum and excipulum filled with cells with thick melanized walls, cells 4–8mm diam.Centrumeglobose, 300–400 mm diam.Excipulumbrown to black, 10–25 mm thick. Periphysespresent in the ostiolar canal, pale brown, unbranched, septate, 30–40 2–3 mm. Pseudoparaphyses lining the upper part of the perithecial cavity, un-branched, septate, 25–100 2–3mm. Inter-ascal filamentsabsent at maturity, reduced to a KI+ blue hymenial gel.Hymenial algal cells elongated to cylindrical, sometimes in pairs or short filaments, (3–)4–9(–12) 1 5–3 0 mm. Asciclavate, fissitunicate, 8-spored, 60– 90 20–30mm. Ascosporescolourless to pale, narrowly to broadly ellipsoid, muriform, (20–)22–30(–32) (9–)10–14(–15)mm. Pycnidianot seen.
Etymology. The epithet protrudens refers to the projecting perithecia characteristic of this species.
Additional specimens examined. Vietnam: Tuyen Quang Province: Na Hang District, Na Hang Nature Reserve, Ban Bung village, on calcareous outcrops, 2011,C. Gueidan 1909 (BM); Na Hang Nature Reserve, near the lake after the dam, on calcareous outcrops, 2011,C. Gueidan 1940a, 1943, 1947 (BM). Hoa Bınh Province: Mai Chau District, PaCo County, Hang Kia-Pa Co Nature Reserve, on calcareous outcrops in small deforested valley, 2011, C. Gueidan1957a, 1957b, 1871 (BM), 1874, 1878 (VNMN). Ha Giang Province: BacMe District, Lac Nong County, on calcareous outcrops, 2011, C. Gueidan1885, 1922 (BM).

Refereces: The Lichenologist 46 (4): 515–533 (2014) British Lichen Society, 2014

12/11/2013

Nón Dẻ tùng sọc trắng hẹp Amentotaxus argotaenia chín đỏ

Thuật ngữ "quả" được dùng đối với những loài thực vật trong Ngành Hạt trần hay Ngành Thông là được sử dụng nhầm. Cơ quan sinh sản đực của chúng sẽ được gọi là nón đực (male cone) hay nón hạt phấn (pollen cone), còn cơ quan sinh sản cái được gọi là Nón cái (female cone) hay Nón hạt (seed cone). Như vậy sẽ không có khái niệm là hoa hay quả đối với các loài Thông mà được dùng thay thế là nón đực và nón cái.

"Quả" Thông đỏ bắc chín đỏ Taxus wallichiana var. chinensis

Để trả lời câu hỏi này có một cách khá dễ dàng đó là sử dụng công cụ tìm kiếm, chỉ vài giây là đã có hành nghìn kết quả. Nếu chúng ta chấp nhận cách như vậy thì nó cũng đồng nghĩa với việc chúng ta chấp nhận nó tuyệt chủng ngoài thiên nhiên.  Nhưng trước hết hãy hỏi ý kiến các bạn nhỏ đã, những chủ nhân tương lai của đất nước có đồng ý với bạn không?