Loài địa y mới Graphis upretii và bẩy loài bổ sung

Loài địa y mới Graphis upretii (holotype). A, B, Habitat; C, Habit; D, Ascomata (the arrow indicates the complete thalline margin); E, Cross-section of ascomata; F, Ascospores (scale bars: A = 15 cm, B, C = 5 cm, D = 1 cm, E = 100 µm, F = 50 µm) (Theo http://synapse.koreamed.org/)

Tóm tắt: loài mới mô tả cho khoa học Địa y Upreti Graphis upretii S. Joshi & Hur sp. nov. được phát hiện từ Đắc Lắc và 7 loài bổ sung cho Việt Nam là: Arthonia radiataBrigantiaea tricolorCoenogonium implexumDirina paradoxaHerpothallon sipmaniiPertusaria pertusa, và Sarcographina cyclospora.

Graphis upretii S. Joshi & Hur sp. nov. 
Similar to G. longispora, but differing in having a complete thalline margin, smaller ascospores, and a thallus that produces norstictic and stictic acids.
Type: Vietnam, Dak Lak Province, Buon Ma Thuot City, Mt. Doi Sao, 12°40'31.8" N, 108°05'24.4" E, alt. c. 539 m, on tree bark, Oh & Thanh VN130043 (holotype KoLRI).
Description: Thallus corticolous, epiperidermal, crustose, continuous, spread in patches up to 15 cm, loosely corticate, rough, rather delicate, crystalline, whitish grey, greenish grey or greyish white, ± dull, 100~200-µm thick in cross-section. Cortex poorly developed, 10~20-µm thick. Photobiont layer densely interspersed with calcium oxalate crystals, 70~90-µm thick. Crystalline layer more distinct below algal cells, 40~70-µm thick. Medulla endoperidermal, indistinct to absent; prothallus whitish.
Ascomata lirelliform, erumpent to prominent. Lirellae completely covered by thalline margin (10~12-µm thick apically), elongate and irregularly branched (negrosina morph), up to 3 cm long, with ends mostly acute to sub-acute. Labia entire, black, appearing greyish in the cross-section because of the thin cortex cover being absent from algal cells. Disc slit-like, epruinose, concealed. Thalline margin complete, sometimes flaking off and exposing black labia, laterally 80~95-µm thick. Proper exciple entire, laterally carbonized, convergent, apically 10 µm to laterally 60~90-µm thick. Epihymenium greyish, crystalline, 15~20-µm high. Hymenium hyaline, clear, 100~130-µm high, I-. Paraphyses simple, rather lax, apically granulate, ± conglutinate, 1~2-µm thick. Hypothecium hyaline, indistinct to 20-µm high, I-. Ascus clavate, 2~6-spored, 120~150 × 15~20 µm, I-. Ascospores hyaline, fusiform, clavate to ellipsoidal with rounded to sub-acute ends, transversely 15~19 septate, about 50~95 × 10~15 µm, locules lenticular, halo not seen, I+ violet to blue.
Additional specimen examined: Vietnam, Dak Lak Province, Buon Ma Thuot City, Mt. Doi Sao, 12°40'31.8" N, 108°05'24.4" E, alt. 539 m, on tree bark, 19 Feb 2013, Oh & Thanh, VN130042 (KoLRI).
New records of lichens in Vietnam
Ghi nhận 7 loài địa y mới cho Việt Nam. A, Arthonia radiata; B, Brigantiaea tricolor; C, Coenogonium implexum; D, Dirina paradoxa; E,Herpothallon sipmanii; F, Pertusaria pertusa; G, Sarcographina cyclospora (the arrow indicates the stromatoid ascomata) (scale bars: A~F = 1 mm, G = 5 mm).(Theo http://synapse.koreamed.org/)
Arthonia radiata (Pers.) Ach. K. Vetensk-Acad. Nya Handl. 29: 131 (1808)
Description: The corticolous species is characterized by a lichenized, 55 to 75-µm thick, pale grey to olive, immersed thallus delimited in patches; linear to aggregated, irregular to substellate ascomata of 1~1.5-mm diameter; flat to slightly convex, black, epruinose disc; brown or olive-brown, hyaline, clear and gelatinous I+ blue hymenium, up to 40-µm high; 8-spored, broadly clavate asci, 35~40 × 14~16 µm; hyaline to grey-brown, oblong-ovoid to oblong, transversely 3-septate, gelatinous, I- ascospores, 14~16 × 4~5 µm, and the absence of lichen substances.Arthonia radiata is widely distributed across Europe, North America, Asia, Africa, and New Zealand.
Specimen examined: Vietnam, Dak Lak Province, Buon Ma Thuot City, Museum, 12°40'32.2" N, 108°02'28.9" E, alt. 516 m, on tree trunk, 19 Feb 2013, Oh & Thanh, VN130048 (KoLRI).
Brigantiaea tricolor (Mont.) Trevis. Spighe Paglie: 9 (1853).
Description: The species is characterized by a whitish grey to grey green, effuse, indistinctly sorediate thallus; sessile, round ascomata constricted at the base, 1~1.5 mm; disc brownish, plane, covered by ± yellow pruina, with prominent, shiny, reddish brown margin reacting K+ blue-violet; biatorine exciple; hyaline, clear to slightly inspersed hymenium, 120~130 µm; 1-spored asci, 90~100 × 30~45 µm; hyaline, ellipsoidal to oblong, muriform ascospores, 65~80 × 25~30 µm, and a thallus containing atranorin and zeorin as the major lichen compounds. B. leucoxantha R. Sant. & Hafellner differs from B. tricolor in having an orange ascomatal margin reacting K+ purple, and a disc containing yellow-orange pruina. B. tricolor is widely distributed in Africa, Australia, eastern and southern Asia, the Hawaiian Islands New Caledonia, and Papua New Guinea.
Specimens examined: Vietnam, Kon Tum Province, Kon Plong District, Mt. Kon Plong, PAK-SY waterfall, 14°35'46.1" N, 108°15'24.3" E, alt. 1,033 m, on dead tree branch, 21 Feb 2013, Oh & Thanh, VN130127 (KoLRI); Dak Lak Province: Yok Don National Park, 12°51'20.0" N, 107°45'58.1" E, alt. c. 760 m, on tree trunk, 22 Apr 2012, Hur & Oh, VN120228 (KoLRI).
Coenogonium implexum Nyl. Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., Ser. 4. 16: 92 (1862).
Description: The species is characterized by filamentous (very densely woven filaments of Trentepohliacells, 30~35 × 14~16 µm), pannose, ecorticate, yellow-green thallus, up to 50 mm; sessile and round ascomata, 0.18~0.2 × 0.5~1 mm; flat, yellow-orange; smooth cream-colored disc with a thin margin; hyaline, paraplectenchymatous proper exciple of radiating isodiametric hyphal cell rows, 40~70 µm; hyaline, clear hymenium reacting I+ blue to sordid green to reddish brown, 60~80 µm; 8-spored asci, 50~60 × 6~7 µm; hyaline, ellipsoid, 1-septate ascospores, 6~8 × 2~3 µm, and a lack of lichen compounds in the thallus. C. implexum is also distributed across the Neotropics, as well as in the eastern Palaeotropics.
Specimen examined: Vietnam, Vinh Phuc Province, Tam Dao National Park, 21°27'21.7" N, 105°39'0.8" E, alt. c. 1,092m, on tree trunk, 25 Apr 2012, Hur & Oh, VN120324 (KoLRI).
Dirina paradoxa (Fée) Tehler Lichenologist 18: 296 (1986).
Description: The species is characterized by a whitish grey, greenish grey to greyish white, pruinose, rimose cracked, verrucose c. 100-µm thick thallus flaking off the substratum and exposing loose white medulla; solitary to aggregate, pluricarpocentral, discothecia, numerous, sessile, circular to distinctly undulate ascomata constricted at base, 0.5~2.5 mm; dark brown, thinly white prinose disc; entire to undulating thalline margin, 0.1~0.9 mm, thin to indistinct proper exciple; hyaline and inspersed hymenium, 80~100 µm; 8-spored, clavate asci, 75~90 µm; hyaline, fusiform (one end thick than other), transversely 3-septate ascospores, 20~23 × 4~6 µm, and the presence of erythrin, lecanoric acid, and a yellowish brown unknown substance in the thallus. The species has previously been reported in the coastal regions of the Caribbean, in the Bahamas, Netherland Antilles, Venezuela, and Trinidad [].
Specimen examined: Vietnam, Dak Lak Province, Buon Ma Thuot City, Museum, 12°40'32.2" N, 108°02'28.9" E, alt. 516m, on tree trunk, 19 Feb 2013, Oh & Thanh, VN130046 (KoLRI).
Herpothallon sipmanii Aptroot, Lücking & Rivas Plata Bibl. Lichenol. 99: 64 (2009).
Description: The species is characterized by a distinctly byssoid, pale mineral grey to green or whitish green thallus, ± firmly appressed to the substrate; compact brown hypothallus; a prothallus made up of radiating whitish hyphae; numerous, pale to off-white, flattened to slightly convex, disc-shaped (schizidia) outgrowths (pseudisidia) of round to wavy margin, up to 1 mm in diameter, and the presence of protocetraric and hypoprotocetraric acids. The species is distributed in Papua, New Guinea, the Philippines, and Thailand. For more details, see Aptroot et al.
Specimen examined: Vietnam, Kon Tum Province, Sa Thay district, 14°41'48.9" N, 107°52'15.3" E, alt. 768 m, on tree trunk, 22 Feb 2013, Oh & Thanh, VN130040 (KoLRI).
Pertusaria pertusa (Weigel) Tuck. Enum. N. Am. Lich.: 56 (1845).
Description: The species is characterized by a pale grey to greenish grey, ± shiny, smooth, wrinkled or warted thallus delimited by a brown line; semi-globose, crowded fertile warts constricted at the base, 1~2-mm in diameter; immersed, perithecioid apothecia, 1~5 per wart; punctiform, brownish disc; hyaline and clear hymenium, 300~400 µm; 2~4-spored asci; hyaline and simple ascospores, 100~140 × 35~40 µm, and a thallus containing norstictic and stictic acids. The species has been reported in Europe, Macaronesia, Africa, and Asia.
Specimen examined: Vietnam, Dak Lak Province, Yok Don National Park, 12°51'20" N, 107°45'58.1" E, alt. 760 m, on tree trunk, 22 Apr 2012, Hur & Oh, VN120223 (KoLRI).
Sarcographina cyclospora Müll. ArgFlora Jena 70: 425 (2887).
Description: The species is characterized by pale fawn, thin, smooth, glossy thallus; lirellate ascomata immersed in white, round to irregular stromata of 2~5 mm in diameter; thin, black, ± open lirellae in irregular stellate clusters; black disc covered by white pruina; non-carbonized, pale yellow to brownish proper exciple; hyaline and clear hymenium, 80~100 µm; 8-spored asci; pale brown to dark-brown, narrowly ellipsoidal, 2 × 2-locular, I- ascospores, 9~12 × 5~7 µm, and the presence of psoromic acid chemosyndrome. This is the second record of the species and has been previously reported only in Australia. The collection of S. cyclosporafrom Vietnam increases the possible distribution of this species in other neighboring countries of tropics.
Specimens examined: Vietnam, Dak Lak Province, Buon Ma Thuot City, Chu Yang Sin National Park (waterfall), 12°29'00.1" N, 108°20'25.6" E, alt. 450 m, on dry rock (sandstone), 19 Feb 2013, Oh & Thanh, VN130022 (KoLRI); Chu Yang Sin National Park, 12°27'57.0" N, 108°20'34.9" E, alt. c. 780 m, on tree trunk, 21 Apr 2012, Hur & Oh, VN 120171 (KoLRI); Vinh Phuc Province, Tay Thien Mt., 21°27'53.3" N, 105°35'06.6" E, alt. c. 77 m, on tree trunk, 26 Apr 2012, Hur & Oh, VN120377, VN120381 (KoLRI).

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